O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?
One of the most significant characteristics of Second Temple Judaism is the wide variety of texts that circulated among different groups of Jews. We are accustomed to treating these documents in classes, based more on their transmission than their literary and theological characteristics. So we speak of Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, and Dead Sea Scrolls, designating in the first and last instance specific groups of texts collected in some way in Antiquity. Pseudepigrapha is a catch-all term which has been used increasingly loosely in recent years. Taken together, we gain from all these texts a picture of a Jewish community, both in and outside of the Land of Israel, producing all kinds of literary works and involved in vigorous debate about all kinds of religious questions. Outside the Bible